Acetylenic alcohols are produced by ethinylation of carbonyl compounds, especially ketones, in the presence of an alkaline reagent and a solvent. Alkaline reagents used in this process include potassium hydroxide, alkali metal alcoholates, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metal amides. Commonly used bases are alkali amides. Potassium hydroxide is considered a poor condensation agent, which cannot be used in a few cases. Furthermore, the use of potassium hydroxide becomes non-economic as large volume is consumed in the reaction. This requires recovery and processing of potassium hydroxide so that it may be reused. Solvents used the production of acetylenic alcohols include ethers and polyethers.
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The global acetylenic alcohols market can be segmented based on type and application. In terms of type, the acetylenic alcohols market can be divided into primary acetylenic alcohols, secondary acetylenic alcohols, and tertiary acetylenic alcohols. Primary acetylenic alcohols include 2-Octyn-l-ol; secondary acetylenic alcohols include ethyloctinol and 4-methyl-1-pentyn-3-ol.; tertiary acetylenic alcohols include methylbutynol, methylpentynol, 3- methyl-1-nonyn-3-ol, and 7,10 dimethyl-8-hexadecyne-7. In terms of end-use industry, the acetylenic alcohols market can be segregated into pharmaceuticals, metals, coatings and paint additives, aroma chemicals, agrochemicals, and others.
Acetylenic alcohol acts as a corrosion inhibiting agent in the metal industry. It also helps in reaction inhibition of precious metal catalysts. Acetylenic alcohols play an important role as starting materials in organic synthesis. Acetylenic derivatives mitigate the corrosive attack suffered by iron alloys in hot acid environments. Organic compounds with acetylenic bond on the metal surface form a polymeric film that performs the inhibiting action by hindering the cathode hydrogen evolution reaction. The formation of polymeric layer involves an initial stage of chemisorption through electrons of the triple bond and a final polymerization stage, sustained by an elevation in the temperature.
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Acid pickling, industrial acid cleaning, acid descaling, and oil well acidification processes employ corrosion inhibitors to prevent or reduce the corrosion rate of metallic materials in the acid media. Acetylenic alcohols act as corrosion inhibitors of transition metal corrosion in acid solutions. They are also used as intermediates for the production of polyols, insecticides, pharmaceuticals, and paints & coatings. Acetylenic alcohols are also employed in disinfectants, pipe descaling agents, etc.
Acetylenic alcohols are converted into other functional groups and used for synthesis of natural organic compounds in pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Acetylenic derivatives form versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, especially in cycloaddition reactions. Allenic alcohols are formed by reacting lithium alanate with acetylenic alcohol.
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