Antibacterial drugs constitute chemicals either obtained from a natural source or synthesized in a laboratory that kill or inhibit the growth of various bacterial strains. These drugs have been grouped into eight major classes: aminoglycosides, β-lactams, tetracycline, sulfonamides, quinolones, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and phenicols. Aminoglycosides is a class of bactericidal antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. These agents bind irreversibly to the 30S bacterial ribosome subunit and interfere with the reading of the genetic code, halt translation that results in inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately cause cell death. Generally, aminoglycosides show bactericidal activity against aerobic gram negative bacteria and are not active against gram positive or anaerobic gram negative bacteria. Hence, aminoglycosides are often used in combination with a β-lactam to treat gram positive bacterial infections that allows penetration of aminoglycosides into the bacterial cytoplasm.
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Aminoglycosides are useful as antibacterial agents with rapid bactericidal activity; however, usage is limited due to potential side effects as these agents are known to cause ear or kidney damage. The aminoglycosides class of antibiotics consists of a wide range of antibiotics such as tobramycin, amikacin, neomycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and paromomycin. Of the above mentioned agents, tobramycin, gentamicin, and amikacin are the most frequently prescribed drugs. These agents resemble each other in antibacterial activity due to similar toxicity and pharmacokinetics. Drivers of the aminoglycosides market include increase in number of generic drugs available in the segment which can be utilized to treat a range of bacterial infections, persistent demand among consumers, and beneficial characteristics such as easy tissue penetration with little or no side effects. This market is highly fragmented, where a lot of generic drugs are available. These will continue to drive the market. However, patient expiry of drugs is a major restraint of the global aminoglycosides market.
The global aminoglycosides market can be segmented based on type of drug, distribution channel, and region. In terms of type of drug, the market can be categorized into tobramycin, amikacin, neomycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, paromomycin, verdamicin, astromicin and hygromycin B. Based on distribution channel, the global aminoglycosides market can be classified into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, online pharmacies, and clinics.
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In terms of region, the global aminoglycosides market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of the World. Expanding health care infrastructure, rise in disposable income, and large percentage of geriatric population in emerging economies such as India and China are the factors expected to play a key role in representing Asia Pacific as one of the most attractive regions for manufacturers operating in the aminoglycosides market. Presence of leading generics manufacturers, low cost of clinical trials, and rapidly growing pharmaceutical industries is likely to propel the market in the region. New drugs are usually launched in the U.S. or Europe prior to their entry in other parts of the world. Hence, early market initiation in these countries as compared to other regions results in larger market share of North America and Europe. Moreover, increase in incidence of gram negative bacteria in North America is major factor attributed to the dominance of this region in the aminoglycosides market. A report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2013 stated that over 2 million people suffer from antibiotic-resistant infections in the U.S. every year, and an estimated 23,000 deaths associated with these infections are reported each year. Hence, the global aminoglycosides market is expected to expand at a significant rate during the forecast period.
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Major players in the global aminoglycosides market are GlaxoSmithKline plc, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis AG, Pfizer, Inc., and Bayer AG.