Alpha-2 antiplasmin or plasmin inhibitor, is a type of glycoprotein synthesized by the liver, kidneys and other tissues of the body. It is a serine protease inhibitor which belongs to the Serpin superfamily that acts as the primary inhibitor of the serine protease plasmin. Fibrinolysis occurs due to the conversion of plasminogen to serine protease plasmin by plasminogen activator. Deficiency of Alpha 2 antiplasmin causes a bleeding disorder owing to the increase fibrinolysis. Alpha-2 antiplasmin is the protein responsible for the degradation of fibrin clots and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Congenital deficiency of this glycoprotein leads to internal hemorrhage.
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Alpha-2 antiplasmin is present in two distinct forms which are as follows:
Alpha 2 antiplasmin is used in various diagnostic technologies such as:
Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA)
Immunohistochemistry – Frozen (IHC-F)
Immunohistochemistry – Paraffin (IHC-P)
End-users of alpha-2 antiplasmin protein are as follows:
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The aforementioned end users use this protein in patients with alpha 2 antiplasmin or plasmin inhibitor deficiency especially in patients who have reported to have significant episodes of internal bleeding following a minor trauma and bleeding into the joints.Patients with alpha 2 antiplasmin deficiency often experiences severe medical complications such as:
Prolonged bleeding from wounds
Increased bleeding after consumption of NSAIDs.
Bleeding into joints followed by trauma
Increased muscle bleeding, hematomas and bruising
Bleeding of gastrointestinal tract
Mucosal and CNS bleeding
In the geographical perspective, North America is the leading market owing to the rise in cases of metabolic syndrome. It has been proved that excess levels of alpha-2 antiplasmin is associated with metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of alpha-2 antiplasmin protein causes development of atherosclerotic plaque which results in various heart diseases.According to the American Heart Association almost 35% of adults in the U.S. are suffering from metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, the Europe and Asia-Pacific regions are expected to witness increased market traction due to increased incidence rate of cardiovascular diseases.
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The major factors driving this market are advances in the coagulation testing practices, increasing use of automated instrumentation are rise in cases of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, factors such as technological advancement in the hospital infrastructures and high adoption rate of preventive diagnostic tests are also expected to drive the market. However, high development costs, need of highly sophisticated instruments and stringent regulatory policies are some of the restraints that could impede the growth of the market globally.
Some of the notable players in this industry segment includes Abbott Laboratories, Axis-Shield plc., Bio/Data Corporation, Becton Dickinson, Corgenix Medical Corporation, Helena Laboratories, Instrumentation Laboratory, Roche, Sysmex Corporation and Thermo Fisher Scientific, amongst others.