Phosphate esters are organic salts of orthophosphoric acid or organophosphorus compounds. They are active anionic surfactants, which are produced as free acids. The molecular formula of phosphate esters is O=P(OH)3. Triaryl, trialkyl, or aryl alkyl phosphates are some of the examples of phosphate esters. Phosphate esters can be categorized into natural and synthetic, depending on raw materials used in their production. Phosphate esters produced from cresylic acid, which is derived from coal tar, are called natural phosphate esters. Examples of natural phosphate esters include tricresyl or trixylenyl phosphate. Synthetic phosphate esters are obtained from phenolics derived from other processes.
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Isopropylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, and tertiary butylphenyl phosphate are the examples of synthetic phosphate esters. Phosphate esters can be produced as monoesters or diesters or a mixture of both. Monoesters are a result of reaction between polyphosphoric acid and either of alcohol, alcohol ethoxylates, or phenyl ethoxylates. Mixture of monoesters and diesters can be obtained by the reaction of alcohol or alcohol ethoxylates, or phenyl ethoxylates with phosphorus pentoxide. Phosphate esters can be used in various applications. They are considered among the most versatile surfactants. Phosphate esters possess numerous advantages over other surfactants. Their stability and solubility in alkali state is the major advantage. They are also excellent hydrotropes and coupling agents, and offer high ignition temperatures and excellent oxidation stability. These are some of the other advantages of phosphate esters.
They are used in various applications including emulsion polymerization, textile auxiliaries, maintenance chemicals, and metal finishing. Phosphate esters are widely employed in industrial applications in the production of specialized chemicals due to their unique properties. They are used to manufacture many products used in household cleaning applications such as detergents. However, the systems and processes employing phosphate esters usually entail high maintenance as compared to other conventional mineral fluids. Thus, there always exists the need to substitute phosphate esters in order to lower maintenance costs.
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